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    国际电厂设计专家相关论点
    作者:Richard J Gendreau
    简介:

    Based on my experience, the design process is an iterative process.  Work proceeds on different levels for different areas of the project depending on the criticality of the work and the status of any required information.  As a result, basic design is like a waterfall that continuously feeds information into the more detailed design process.  It is a cascading effect where as basic work is complete for a portion of the design, that portion can move onto the more detailed work. There is no need and it makes no sense to wait for all of the basic design to be completed before moving on to portions of the detailed design.  As basic information is available, detailed design is commenced for that portion of the work. In my experience designing power projects and reviewing the design and construction of numerous power projects around the world, it is very common to have major payment milestones coincide with the start or finish of significant activities on the project schedule.  But a milestone payment schedule is independent of an appropriate design process.

    基于我的经验,设计是一个重复程序。项目不同区域不同级别的工程开展依赖于此工程的关键度及所需信息状况。因此,基本设计就如瀑布一样,不断向更为详尽的设计程序供给信息。这是一个层叠效应,一部分基本设计完成即可进行下一步更为详尽的工作。等到所有基本设计完成之后才开始详细设计是没有必要且讲不通的。一旦获得基本信息即可进行此部分的详细设计。基于我对全世界大量电厂项目进行设计以及对设计施工评审的经验,让重大里程碑付款时间与项目计划的重大活动起止时间重合是很常见的,但是里程碑付款时间表与设计程序是完全不同的两个概念。

    The engineering and design activities on a project are organized in a functional and rational manner that takes into consideration the requirements for project financing, the design review by the owner and OE and the overall project schedule.  Because of these factors, it is common for an EPC project to start with a Limited Notice to Commence (“LNTC”). This allows the contractor to proceed with the most critical activities while limiting the owner’s financial exposure until financing is in place, the final EPC contract terms have been negotiated and other critical activities have been completed, and a final NTC can be issued. During the LNTC period, it is necessary for the contractor to perform activities that would be considered part of basic design as well as detailed design in order to support these critical activities and milestones.  An example of detailed design work being done during LNTC period is the need to specify and initially select the major equipment suppliers, typically the boiler and steam turbine generator (“BTG”), in order to obtain the data needed to proceed with the LNTC design scope of work and because this equipment has the longest lead times and significantly influences the project schedule’s critical path.

    项目工程及设计活动应以实用和理性的方式组织进行,需考虑到项目融资要求,业主及业主工程师对设计的评审以及整个项目计划。由于这些因素,EPC项目以有限开工令(“LNTC”)开始是正常的。这样一来可以在降低业主资金风险的同时,让承包商进行最关键的活动,直至资金到位。在EPC合同最终条款协定以及其他关键活动完成之后,签发最终开工令(“NTC”)。在LNTC期间,承包商很有必要进行基本设计及详细设计活动,以支持这些关键活动及里程碑。LNTC期间要完成的一项详细设计工作就是对主要设备供应商进行确定和初步筛选,特别是锅炉和汽机发电机(“BTG”),以此获得完成LNTC设计范围内的工作所需的信息,也因为这些设备的交货期最长而且对项目关键路径影响最大。

    Following the LNTC period and the award of the full NTC, it is normal industry practice to proceed with the completion of the basic design activities followed by detailed design activities. However, I disagree all aspects of the basic design must be complete before any detailed design activities can begin. It is really not practical or even possible to execute a project in this manner.  Rather, the basic design and detailed design activities are organized in a manner that provides the data needed to develop the design in each schedule sequence and that provides the shortest schedule and most cost effective design.  For example, as previously mentioned, the BTG equipment must be selected in order to obtain critical data needed to proceed with the basic and detailed designs and to support the schedule. Other basic design and detailed design activities must also proceed during the LNTC period, so that shortly after the full NTC is issued the basic design can be completed and critical detailed design documents can be issued.

    在LNTC期间获得全面NTC之后,完成基本设计活动并进行下一步详细设计活动是正常的行业惯例。我不同意详细设计活动只有在所有基本设计完成之后才能开始的观点。以这样的方式执行项目是不正常甚至是不可能的。相反,基本设计及详细设计活动应以为下一步计划提供设计所需信息并提供最短计划时间和最低设计成本的方式组织实施。例如,如上所述,必须选定BTG设备以获得开展详细设计和支持计划表所需的关键信息。其他基本设计和细节活动也应在LNTC期间进行,以便在全面NTC签发之后基本设计就能完成,详细设计文件也能发布。

    In my opinion, when designing and constructing a power plant, there is no requirement or industry standard that mandates that all basic design activities must be complete before any detailed design activities can commence.  In all of my experience, the design process has been a continuum that at certain stages includes both basic design and detailed design activities being performed concurrently.

    我认为,电厂设计及施工过程中,没有任何要求或行业标准规定所有基本设计活动必须在细节活动开始之前全部完成。根据我的经验,设计过程是一个持续的过程,在某一阶段,基本设计和详细设计活动可以同时进行。

    In my opinion, codes and standards absolutely need to be specifically defined to complete the basic design process. Understanding the codes and standards to be used in designing a project is of paramount importance to any design effort.  It is no less important than the specification of the boiler technology, the fuel characteristics, stack emissions or any number of other requirements that define the fundamental characteristics and performance of a plant.  In my experience, codes and standards are clearly defined at the very inception of a power project in the earliest preliminary descriptions and specifications.  The codes and standards are included in the design basis and technical plant descriptions that make up the Request for Proposal documents or in the other contract documents for an EPC project because they are fundamental to the pricing, scheduling and award of a project.  The codes and standards are clearly defined in the EPC contract because they define a recognized, respected and predictable design standard, and for lenders and insurers, the codes and standards provide the ability to compare projects and to assess risk.

    我认为,标准和规范绝对需要明确规定以完成基本设计程序,因为项目设计使用的标准规范对于任何设计都至关重要,其与用于定义电厂基础特性和性能的锅炉技术规范,燃料特性,烟囱排放或任何其他要求同等重要。根据我的经验,规范和标准定义在电厂起初最早的标准和规范中。这些标准和规范包含在设计基础或电厂技术描述中,构成拟定文件要求或其他EPC项目合同文件,因为这些是项目价格,计划及签约的基础。标准和规范明确定义在EPC合同中,因为依据这些才能确定出受认可的,应被遵从和可预见的设计标准,对于贷方和担保方,依据这些标准和规范,才能比较项目和评估风险。

    As a result, any requests to substitute Chinese codes and standards for U.S. or international codes and standards, other than for minor items, are normally done prior to the execution of the EPC contract and financial close, so that all of the major stakeholders in a project are aware of the change and the change can be considered in the final contract negotiations and project financing discussions. For minor items, any requests to substitute Chinese codes and standards for U.S. and international codes and standards should be resolved prior to the acceptance of the basic design. The fundamental calculations and analysis that are required to develop the basic design cannot be done without first knowing the codes and standards on which the basic design is based.  It is like trying to write a book without knowing what language to write it in.  Also, since confirming that the basic design is in compliance with the EPC contract and the understanding of the lenders at the time of financial close can only be done if the basic design is done in accordance with the codes and standards in the EPC contract, codes and standards need to be specifically defined to complete a basic design process.

    因此,除了很小的变化,任何将美国或国际标准替换成中国标准的请求都应在EPC合同执行或融资关闭之前提出,以便项目主要股东知晓此变更,此种变更可在最终合同谈判和项目融资讨论中进行考量。对于小变化,任何将美国或国际标准替换成中国标准的请求应在基本设计接受之前解决。用于开展基本设计的基础计算和分析在不清楚基本设计基于何种标准的情况下不能执行,就好比写书得先知道使用哪种语言一样。同样,确认基本设计遵循EPC合同且了解只有在基本设计遵循EPC合同的情况下,才会获得贷方融资,标准和规范需要明确定义以便完成基本设计程序。

    The specification and application of codes and standards is fundamental to the design, construction and safe, reliable operation of power generating facilities.  Codes and standards provide the minimum design requirements to protect public health, safety, property and the environment. In many cases, codes and standards also establish minimum performance standards. In the power industry, codes and standards provide a set of rules that specify the minimum standards required to design, fabricate, manufacturer, construct, install, inspect, test, control, operate and maintain a power plant.  They cover structures, systems, equipment, materials and components. In my opinion, it would be impossible to develop the basic design of a project without knowing what codes and standards governed that design.

    标准及规范的确定和使用对于电厂的设计,施工以及安全可靠运行至关重要。标准及规范为保护公众健康,安全,财产及环境提供了最低设计要求。在很多情况下,标准和规范也建立了最低性能标准。在电力行业,标准和规范提供了一套用于确定电厂设计,制造,生产,建设,安装,检查,测试,控制,运行和维护的最低标准,包括构架,系统,设备,材料和部件。我认为,开展项目基本设计却不知道使用何种标准是不可能的。